Cidade da Ribeira Grande de Santiago, the former capital of Santiago (previously called Cidade Velha), was placed on the World Cultural Heritage list by UNESCO in July 2009. The city is overlooked by a mighty fortress, Fortaleza Real de São Felipe, which serves as a reminder of the Portuguese colonial rulers. The romantic little houses of Rua Banana, which also display architecture typical of Portugal, were rebuilt true to the original within the scope of a UNESCO project. The fact that the Cidade de Santiago was the centre of the international slave trade during its heyday, when it was still called Ribeira Grande, is attested to by the pillory (Pelourinho), an obelisk close to the city centre. The Nossa Senhora do Rosário church, whose construction began in 1495, is enthroned above the northern part of Rua Banana. With its baptismal of alabaster, it’s the oldest colonial church in the world. Above all, the monument‘s baptistery is worth seeing. The floral motifs in stone in the latticework vault of the chapel are evidence of Moorish influences, as are the numerous azulejos (painted tiles). The Convento São Francisco, to the north of the city centre, is also worth visiting. Directly on the coast, the ruin-like Sé Catedral lies elevated above the sea. Started in 1555 and only completed in 1693, the rather simple church in the Mudéjar style is full of history. Its construction plans were frequently changed, and it was partially built of limestone and partially of basalt quarry stones.